Although China has set official goals for reforestation, these goals were set for an 80-year time horizon and were not significantly met by 2008. , Deforestation without reforestation, has negative climatic effects but particularly for agricultural expansion, it creates a scenario for diminishing returns.  These distinctions are important in light of Silverio's research findings that not all deforestation affects the environment and climate in the same way. , In 2020, a team of scientists studied worldwide deforestation efforts and found they were not working. 30% of the goals had a direct association with the sustainable forestry management objectives. These repeated practices would create an unsustainable cycle needed to keep producing expected yields.  The top soil oftentimes erodes after forests are cleared which leads to sediment increase in rivers and streams. ", "Tropical Deforestation : Feature Articles", "Deforestation of sandy soils a greater threat to climate change", "Effects of Deforestation | The Pachamama Alliance", "AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC", "Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation", "To what extent could planting trees help solve climate change? While the geographic zone houses one quarter of the world's forests it has the highest rates of deforestation. Forests sequester carbon in the form of wood and other biomass as the trees grow, taking up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (see carbon cycle). This process will be repeated about 5 to 10 times before a farmer would return to a patch of once deforested land allowed to return to a forested state. This partnership is done with the intent of not only repairing damage to the environment but also to provide economic and social benefits to the affected area. On a larger scale, in some countries whole groups of people move from place to place around the forest, clearing the trees in …  Fishbone is in reference to the visual aesthetic of the scarred land and how it branches off from the roadside in straight lines. Deforestation leads to land erosion because the trees maintain the surface of the mountains. From these satellite images, specialists can create false-color composites to differentiate forest cover from bare ground and soil.  However, deforestation disrupts the processes of carbon sequestration and affects localized climates. When the trees burn or rot, the carbon in them returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide. An area of 26,130 square kilometers – around the size of Belgium – was destroyed, most of it illegally.  This is notable because loss of forest habitats puts biodiversity in jeopardy. While it is easy to understand the driving causes of deforestation, it can be harder to recognize and explain the impacts. Chopping down of trees disrupts the flow of water and leads to floods in some areas. Many other countries and regions are beginning to start or have already started reforestation programs and initiatives in hopes of counteracting global climate change drivers. A total of almost 4 million hectares (9.9×10^6 acres) of timber is harvested each year. The Main Causes of Deforestation. Examples of Illegal Logging Rates in Timber Producing Countries – In Indonesia it is estimated that up to 90 percent of logging is illegal. In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in more than a century.  The estimated amount of total land mass used by agriculture is around 38%. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans. Restoring trees in deforested places is called reforesting.  A 2007 study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are codependent—that diversity among species requires diversity within a species and vice versa. Agriculture: People living near the rainforests sometimes cut down the trees in order to create farms for the cultivation of crops. The percentages are 0.6 +/- 0.3% for urbanization, 23 +/- 4% for forest fires, 26 +/- 4% for logging, and 24 +/- 3% for shifting agricultural practices.  Whilst efforts have been made to decrease the rate of deforestation in the country, such as increased law enforcement, there is still room for further intervention. The relationship between deforestation and climate change is one of a positive feedback loop. Deforestation and forest degradation account for nearly 20% of all man-made emissions. More people in the cities means that more power is needed to keep every ting running, and more water needs to be pumped in to meet the growing needs. This lack of nutrients can then lead to smaller crop yields and a need to convert more forest land into agricultural zones. Trees are also important for carbon sequestration. Nonetheless, China currently has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, with 4.77 million hectares (47,000 square kilometers) of afforestation in 2008. Burning or cutting down trees reverses the effects of carbon sequestration and releases greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. The then Billion Tree Campaign was launched in 2006 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) as a response to the challenges of global warming, as well as to a wider array of sustainability challenges, from water supply to biodiversity loss. Deforestation comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others.  Not only does the lumber industry impact local deforestation, but it also impacts the whole environment, as deforestation is a major driver of climate change. The impacts of deforestation. This can have a global effect by creating shortages in medicine worldwide. Due to deforestation, animals often lose their habitats and vegetation is significantly decreased.  Mass deforestation continues to threaten tropical forests, their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide.  More people means that more space is needed, and there are two ways to accommodate it, going up or going out. This coupled with the increased attention to carbon emission stocks as a way to provide additional resource flows to the developing countries.. , It is also important to note that not all deforestation is as result of agriculture expansion. Its area of approximately seven million square kilometers covers the largest hydrographic network on the planet, through which runs about one fifth of the fresh water on the world's surface. , Globally there are 18 "hot-spots," each of which contains a unique and biodiverse ecosystem. 1.  Most of the focus of wide-scale reforestation efforts have been focused on tropical climate areas like some parts of Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Along with other Southeast Asian countries deforestation in the Philippines is a major environmental issue.Over the course of the 20th century, the forest cover of the country dropped from 70 percent down to 20 percent. Additionally, cutting down trees plays a role in a positive feedback loop centered around climate change on a much larger scale, as studies are finding..  The declarations were signed in November 2007 in Singapore at the ASEAN Summit. , The relative cost of planting tree is low when looking at other methods of carbon emission reduction, making reforestation a go-to method for cost effective means of reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The loss of tree cover has a number of negative effects on the planet.  Specifically, forests hold roughly 471 billion tons of the total carbon emissions in our world.  Humans will also be impacted by loss of biodiversity as food, energy, and other ‘ecosystem goods and services’ patterns are disrupted. This greater the above ground tree biomass density, the greater the amount of Carbon (C) that the forest is able to sequester and storage.  Furthermore, it is essential that RIL should be practiced as soon as possible to improve reforestation in the future. The word is normally used to describe the actions of humans in removing forests from the planet, rather than destruction caused by such natural events as hurricanes. Additionally, livestock contribute high levels of methane emissions, which have an enormous environmental impact. When forests are lost, very often the soil they protected is also lost. Deforestation in the rainforest means individual species will become endangered and biodiversity is reduced. If it’s a new city development, pollution … Overall, the demand increase is expected to result in greater palm oil expansion which would contribute to further tropical deforestation. Malhi, Y., et al. Impacts on water supply The deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has had a significant negative impact on Brazil's freshwater supply, harming, among others, the agricultural industry that has contributed to the clearing of the forests. At a global level, deforestation is also known to have an effect on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere through; Slash and Burn Practices: Used primarily to create agricultural land, it involves the logging of forests and burning debris afterwards. , The Amazon Fund is aimed at raising donations for non-reimbursable investments in efforts to prevent, monitor and combat deforestation, as well as to promote the preservation and sustainable use of forests in the Amazon Biome, under the terms of Decree N.º 6,527, dated August 1, 2008. Based on an analysis of land use pattern maps and a road map an estimated 9.8 million hectares of forests were lost in the Philippines from 1934 to 1988. , GIS and remote sensing methods can be used to visualize deforestation in a given area. It is expected that biofuel demands are to surpass the demand for edible palm oil production. ANSWER: Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. 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